The environment

Location

The SCA VIRGEN DEL PERPETUO SOCORRO is located in the SOUTH of the Province of Jaén and Northeast of the Province of Córdoba, between the municipalities of Alcaudete, Castillo de Locubin, Martos and Luque.

The province of Jaén is located to the south of the Iberian Peninsula, within the Andalusian region, in a quadrant defined by the following coordinates: 37º 22' and 33º 33' north latitude, 1º 15' west longitude and 0º 35' longitude west of Madrid. It has an extension of 13,498 km2. It limits to the north with the province of Ciudad Real, to the north and east with Albacete, to the east and south with Granada and with Córdoba to the west.

Climatology

clima-iconThe entire provincial territory is within the Mediterranean type, although within it we can distinguish five fundamental subtypes, such as the Subtropical Mediterranean (which includes the regions of La Loma and the North and South Campiñas), the maritime Mediterranean (Ubeda and La Iruela) , Temperate Mediterranean (corresponds to the strip parallel to the border with Granada), Fresh Temperate Mediterranean (represented by the Arroyo Canales observatory, at the eastern end of the province next to the Segura river), Eastern Mediterranean (occurs in the Comarcas de Sierra Morena and El Condado).

The mean values of the provincial Climatic variables are:

  • Average annual temperature 10.1 -20.4 º C
  • Average temperature of the Maxima 16.1 - 26 º C
  • Minimum average temperature 3.3 - 15.6 º C
  • Duration of the frost-free period 4.2 - 9 months
  • Annual mean ETP 631-1,114 mm.
  • Average annual rainfall 431-1133 mm.
  • The winds have a predominant direction from the west.

Productive activities.

The main economic activity revolves around the agricultural sector and its processing industry, in which the olive grove duplicates other crops in extension. Another important economic sector is the industrial sector, specialized in the canning industry, sweets and shortbreads, nuts, plaster, and kitchen and bathroom furniture, some of which are highly appreciated for their quality in the national and international market. .

Orography

sierra-ahillos_177852The orography of the municipality is slightly undulating by limestone hills that stand out from terrain, more or less flat, clayey, and whose altitude varies between 400 and 550 meters above sea level. All these plains and hills are surrounded by a mountainous belt belonging to the prepenibetic mountain ranges, and which reach the maximum height with the Sierra Ahillos at 1,455 meters above sea level. Two km west of Alcaudete, is the Sierra Orbes with 787 meters above sea level. Cerro Caniles reaches 839 meters above sea level. Between Bobadilla and Noguerones the Sierra Villodres at more than 600 meters above sea level. To the south San Pedro with more than 1,000 meters above sea level. In an east-west direction to the east rises an abrupt chain whose name is Ahillo and where the maximum heights of the term are reached, with 1,455 meters above sea level.

Surface Water Resources.

The surface water resources in the municipal term of Alcaudete are rich. There is a hydrographic network with a south-west direction, formed by the Víboras River and the San Juan River, as well as the Vadomojón reservoir (natural border with the province of Córdoba) and that it also shares with farms belonging to this API located in the municipality of Luque.
In addition to the aforementioned, there are in the municipal term of Alcaudete, two lagoons (included in the Natura Network) of a considerable extension, located to the west of the urban area and near the Víboras river, about 5 km from the confluence of this with the San Juan River, and which are called Laguna del Chinche, closer to the Víboras, and Laguna Honda, a little further away. Its waters are used for the irrigation olive grove, and to a lesser extent for the irrigation of vegetables. On the other hand, the waters of the Alcaudete streams irrigate 13,500 ha, almost all of them belonging to the main crop of Alcaudete, that is, the olive tree. By importance we can mention: Fuente Nueva, Chiclana, Ahillo, Fuente la Zarza, Maimón, Fuente Záide, Chorreadero, etc.

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE OLIVE GROVE

10_00003-l_oliveraThe olive variety that predominates in this area is Picual, (80 %), also called Marteño, although there are other minor varieties such as Carrasqueño de Alcaudete (15%) and Picudo (5 %).

The olive grove has a medium size between 1 to 2 feet, generally. It should be noted that new plantings are made with a stake or barbon, or in a one-foot nursery bag.

Most of the plantations are between 50 and 100 years old. In this way, we can say that the olive grove is fairly old, needing proper care for productivity to be profitable.

The average plantation frame of the olive grove is 11 x 11, although in some plots 12 x 12 frames are observed, due to the rugged terrain, and 8 x 8 in young plantations. Obtaining, thus, a density of olive grove oscillating between 80 and 110 olive trees per Ha.

The dry-land olive grove predominates, although the irrigated one (located by drip) is being implemented day by day. So that today there are small irrigation communities from soundings, as well as the river meadows.

As we have commented previously, many of the plots have received agri-environmental aid in sloping olive groves, the farmers committing themselves to carry out good agricultural practices. This has resulted in a system
non-tillage cultivation, mainly with ground cover or shredded pruning.

The estimate of olive production corresponds to between 3,000 and 4,000 kgr / Ha, in such a way that an amount of olives will be produced in the entire API surface next year to 10,000 tons.

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